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No interest or transfer fee

A duopoly is a situation in which two firms control nearly all of the market for a product or service.

Duopolies can be surprisingly competitive. If you remember that the price of a product or service is determined solely by the highest losing bid price and the lowest losing ask price, you’ll realize why a duopoly can be so competitive. A large number of inefficient competitors will have almost no affect on prices in the long run unless someone (either a government or a group of idiotic investors) is willing to continually finance unprofitable operations in an unprofitable industry (think airlines). Of course, there is always the fear of a price fixing scheme in a duopoly. Generally, however, that fear is unfounded. Human nature suggests a price fixing scheme is far more likely to occur in an oligopoly than a duopoly. Humans weight the fear of loss far more heavily than the greed of gain when making calculations about the future. In a duopoly, mistrust increases the fear of loss inherent to any price fixing scheme (namely, the other guy will stab you in the back). In an oligopoly, the diffusion of power and the interest no transfer or fee lack of excess capacity at any one firm makes price fixing very attractive. Price fixing in an oligopoly is a much safer bet than price fixing in a duopoly. There are, of course, other reasons why a duopoly is very unlikely to result in a price fixing scheme. In addition to a healthy does of fear, there is an often unhealthy does of hate in duopolies. There is always just one scapegoat in a duopoly. Hatred no interest or transfer fee is a personal emotion; if spread over too many no interest or transfer fee objects it tends to wane away. Finally, there’s the simple fact that both competitors in a duopoly are likely really big, really agile, really cutthroat players. The process leading up to a duopoly tends to be a sort of wolfing run, in which two pups are separated from the runts. Having said all that, price fixing is possible in a duopoly. Some duopolies are not the result of competition but of nationalization and privatization, although this is relatively rare since a nationalized monopoly won’t often result in a lasting duopoly (it will either remain a monopoly once privatized or get crushed by new, private competitors). Finally, a price fixing scheme always makes more sense in a commodity business. After all, any product differentiation limits the degree to which general demand is applicable to specific competitors’ products. For example, Coke and Pepsi are highly differentiated products, at least when purchased in their specific packaging (physical differences or similarities are immaterial here; it is only the buyer’s belief that matters). I drink Pepsi, and I can assure you (however irrational it sounds) that no drop in the price of Coke would be sufficient to get me to stop buying Pepsi. There is almost no other tangible good about which I could say the same. So, clearly Coke and Pepsi are differentiated products, and there’s very little chance of an effective price fixing scheme between them.2

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Acquiring too much debt can put a major strain on a household. To eliminate debt, many people consider bankruptcy. With the new bankruptcy laws, it has become difficult for some people to eliminate debt. However, many will continue to qualify for bankruptcy protection. The effects of bankruptcy are long term. Before considering bankruptcy, it helps to explore solutions to debt elimination. Here are three tips that can help reduce debts.

Limit Credit Card Use and Pay More than Minimums

People file bankruptcy with varying credit amounts. Some have acquired over $10,000 of credit card debt, whereas others only have about $2,000. Individuals with small debts can usually payoff the balances without bankruptcy. However, these persons must be willing to make sacrifices.

If attempting to eliminate debt, stop using the credit card. Paying only the monthly minimum, and then going on a shopping spree defeats the purpose. Before you can successfully eliminate credit card debts, you must commit to using cash for all purchases. Additionally, the majority of minimum payments barely reduce the finance fees. To notice a significant reduction, endeavor to pay the minimum payment, plus an additional $50 - $100.

Negotiate a Lower Interest Rate

If you have maintained a good payment history with a credit card company, attempt to negotiate a lower interest rate. When contacting the credit card company, highlight your history with the company such as length of credit account, payment history, etc. If your credit is good, the company may consider a reduction. Before approving the request, you must consent to a credit check.

In addition to evaluating your history with the company, they will also assess whether you maintain a good payment record with other creditors. If your credit score is low, it may require the help of a debt consolidation agency to convince creditors to lower interest rates.

Once your credit card interest rate is lowered, you pay less finance fees. Thus, a larger portion of your monthly payments will help reduce the outstanding balance.

Consolidate Debts with a Home Equity Loan or Refinancing

Owning a home provides a huge advantage. Homes increase in values, thus they gain equity. As a homeowner you have the option of tapping into your home's equity. Through a home equity loan or refinancing, you have the chance to get hold of a lump sum of money that can be used for different purposes. One such purpose includes debt consolidation.

In order to understand Roth IRA Accounts, you first need to understand the concept of a Roth IRA. IRA is an acronym for individual retirement arrangements, wherein an earning person can contribute his money to a Roth IRA account. The advantage of this arrangement is that, though the contributions themselves are subject to tax deductions, withdrawals are not taxed. The advantage of this is that your income is allowed to grow tax-free. This means while a contribution is made with after-tax money, there is no tax involved with the withdrawal, subject to certain conditions. So in a way, the Roth IRA is a good way to convert income earned from dividends, interest, and capital gains etc. into tax-free money.

An individual cannot contribute more than $4,000 to the Roth IRA Account, though he may have a large number of such accounts. But the contribution limit to these accounts should not exceed $4,000.

A Roth IRA Account can be built from either contributions or from conversions. An account made from contributions involves the annual payments made by individuals in cash. Conversion accounts, on the other hand, involve the contributions made from converting a traditional IRA into a Roth IRA.

Contributions to these accounts can be made from January 1 of the current year to the next filing deadline date, which is usually April 15 of the following year. Moreover, you can withdraw the money from a Roth IRA Account after five years, and also if you have turned fifty nine and a half years of age or you have suffered some sort of disability. All such withdrawals are tax-free and penalty free.

In fact, there is one major difference between the ordinary IRA Accounts and the Roth IRA Accounts. The rules of withdrawal vary for people who have reached seventy and a half years of age. There is absolutely no requirement that a person above this age would ever have to make a withdrawal from Roth IRA Accounts. But this is not so for traditional IRA Accounts, where some minimum amount of withdrawals have to be made.

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